The meat of fish is a source of high-quality proteins, macro and microelements (phosphorus, potassium, selenium, calcium, copper, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc), vitamins A and D, as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 series (freshwater fish have less omega-3 fats than the sea fish).

There is a lot of variation among species regarding their nutritional composition (proteins, minerals, and vitamins). Most of the fish species are low-fat; salmon has significant amounts of unsaturated fatty acids, codfish has high levels of salt content, and sardine are much richer in vitamins than the other species.

Because of the high content of omega-3 fatty acids, regular consumption of fish have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular health and many other conditions. In one large study, the regression of prostatic carcinoma was demonstrated in people with a high intake of omega-3 acids. Omega-3 supplements do not have the same effect as sea species (as shown in a study coming from China in 2018).

Oil-rich fish has long-chain n‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids which is important for the metabolism of biologically active substances that regulate many processes in the human body, and have positive effects on various disorders.

Japanese people, as well as Eskimos, have a relatively low incidence of cardiovascular disease, because of their healthy eating patterns that traditionally include lots of sea fish.

However, some seafood (oysters, crab, shrimp) have significantly high levels of cholesterol and should be eaten only sparingly.

Additionally, eating too often or too much seafood harbor potential risks such as contamination with the parasite, histamine, chemicals (mercury), and other agents and pathogens that may cause allergic and toxic reactions. Also, microbial, oxidative, and enzymic spoilage can occur during post‐harvest storage of fish.

Fish welfare

A Norwegian study, published in British Food Journal, researched the welfare of the salmon and readiness of consumers to pay more for premium fish products in order to secure better treatment for the species. The survey findings tell that Norwegian people do care, but that they are willing to share the costs for welfare-assured fish meat with producers and government. An excellent example of how all stakeholders in a food chain should behave, across the globe.

American Heart Association and the WHO recommend consuming 1-2 servings of oil-rich fish per week as prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke.

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